Kody moralne. Analiza z pogranicza psychologii, antropologii i etyki
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The goal of the paper is to describe the main moral codes in the psychological as well as interdisciplinary perspective. The concept of altruism is adopted as the starting point. There are concerned well known kinds of altruism: the kin altruism (caring parents for children etc.), the reciprocal altruism and disinterested (pure) altruism. Author postulates fourth kind of altruism - the identificational one. It develops in the human in course of identification with chosen values, ideals, cultural constructs such as worldview, religion, nation, the feeling of sharing the same philosophy of life etc. Author gathers the data, arguments, and examples for the thesis that these four kinds of altruism are in fact the main moral codes which people uses (discusses, among others, the concept of L. Kohlberg). In the process of meeting with others people the first moral code switching on is the kin altruism, then the reciprocal; these two switches on automatically. Then appeared identificational altruism and very seldom pure one - these both depends essentially on upbringing and culture. For the moral life decisive is the identificational code which has two versions: particular and universalistic.