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This paper is concerned with basis of physiology and psychology of hearing. It presents the most important mechanisms in hearing including middle and inner ear mechanics and cooing of acoustic stimuli in the auditory nerve. It also shows some consideration connected with cochlear amplifier that probably exists in the inner ear. The amplifier enhances sensitivity of the auditory system to very weak sounds and brings about high frequency selectivity of the system and its nonlinear properties. The amplifier is based on properties of the outer hair cells and may be a source of energy delivered to the basilar membrane. This mechanism is probably responsible for otoacoustic emission, i.e. very weak sounds generated by the auditory system. This paper presents the most important relations between physical parameters of sound and its loudness and pitch not only for pure tones but also for complex signals. It also shows some details of the auditory filter concept and some aspects of the frequency selectivity of the auditory system. The most important findings concerned with binaural perception of sounds are also included.