Transcendentalność wolności a imperatyw działania moralnego (Kant i Bierdiajew)
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The article discusses the relationship between transcendental freedom and ethical imperatives as exemplified by the philosophical theories of Immanuel Kant and Nikolay Berdyayev. The author compares Kant’s theory which a priori bases moral law on freedom with Berdyayev’s creative act ethics which assumes the primacy of freedom over moral imperatives. One can conclude from the presented analysis that the perception of moral law as founded on freedom inevitably leads to the loss of the transcendental character of freedom. The study takes into account the evolution of Kant’s ideas, which is expressed in one of his last works, Die Religion innerhalb der Gnenzen der blossen Vernunji (Religion within the Boundaries of Pure Reason). Berdyayev’s ideas have been interpreted as a continuation of Kant’s late philosophy. The Russian philosopher’s concept illustrates the threats which stem from the reduction of freedom to mere obedience to moral law, and the benefits which result from the perception of transcendental freedom as creation.
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