Przygotowanie fizyczne specjalne gimnastyków w procesie treningu sportowego
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The sports rivalry nowadays requires a logically programmed training process based on the latest scientific findings, technological achievements and the instructors’ experience. The issue of controlling the training process in sports gymnastics is a very complex one and includes many aspects which require explanation. The special physical preparation and its different aspects in this sports discipline is an up-to-date issue, which makes it possible to elevate the effectiveness of the training process to a higher level. The work hereby constitutes the summary of several years’ period of research on special physical preparation of the gymnasts during the long-term training process, whereas the aims of the research were the following: • The determination of specific aspects of motor activity, the importance of the level of functional abilities of the human body, special exercise abilities and motor skills, as well as the methods of their accomplishment during the training and starting activity of the gymnasts at different stages of the long-term training process. • The analysis, and then the generalisation of theoretical and methodological approach in the field of programming the basic training means of the special physical and functional preparation of the gymnasts and its organisation, taking into consideration the long-term process of sports preparation of the gymnasts. • Indicating the applicative possibilities to use the obtained results in the research in the practice of the training process. The research, the results of which and their multidirectional analysis have been presented in the paper hereby, covered 146 gymnasts of different age (6-25 years), who were at different stages of the sports training. The experimental researches have been done periodically and in stages between 1998-2006 within particular components of the structure of the training. The observation concerning the discussed issue was conducted in The Centre of Olympic Preparation for Gymnasts in Gdansk and in gymnastic classes of the Sports School in Bydgoszcz. The researches have also been done in cooperation with B. Szachlin and E. Dobrowolski (the representative gymnastic team of Ukraine). In the process of verification of the established aims, the following research methods have been applied: • Pedagogical observation, the analyses and determining of the applied methods, forms and means of planning and controlling the training process. • The methods of the assessment of the development of the general physical dexterity, motor abilities as well as special physical preparation. • Ergometric and physiological methods of the assessment of ability to work, the energetic abilities, the reaction of the cardiovascular system, the changes of the atrial and prioprioceptive functions of the psychomotor processes and the functional state of the human body. • The methods of statistical mathematics. The data gathered, illustrating the experimental material, has been presented in the consecutive chapters of the paper. In the presented monograph, based on the collected research data and its analysis, it has been justified that there is the connection between the dynamics of the natural biological development and the use of the training loads in the process of achieving the sports mastery. It has also been pointed out that there is the necessity to achieve the determined criteria in order to evaluate the essential level of the development of motor abilities during the combination of the exercises in relation to individual potential and the age groups, which is characteristic for the gymnastics. As a result of the analysis of the collected research data the Author has determined the significance of the level of abilities of the energetic systems of the organism within the limits of moving the training loads in time and their effectiveness on every stage of the long-term training process. He has also pointed out the relations between certain indexes and the essence of the special physical preparation, the increase in sports mastery, the range and the complexity of the training loads which determine the prospective abilities of the young gymnasts. He has also exposed the significance of the compatibility of the preparation effects to the mastering the energetic potential of the organism in order to inten sify the training process, the possibility of increasing the loads and, which goes with it, the rate of increase in technical and sports mastery. It has also been proved in the thesis that the gymnasts who are characterised by a high level of sports ability are distinguished by a certain “reserve” of the motor potential – the exceeding of the level of sports preparation which is required by the gymnastic, training and starting policy. The scale of the exceeding has been presented in different parts of the training process and for certain components of the motor abilities. The Author has also pointed out the basics of the relation be tween the amount, the character and the direction of the training loads, and the properties of the natural biological development of the gymnasts. The Author has also included the theoretical and the methodological analysis of the physical process throughout the different stages of the training process. The specific practical solutions for the mastering of the special physical preparation in sports gymnastics have been provided.
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