Hydromorphological conditions of the Lower Vistula in the development of navigation and hydropower
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The article presents general principles of development of the Lower Vistula (dolna Wisła) channel in the Holocene period, with a particular emphasis on the unintentional human interference in the fluvial processes associated with deforestation and cultivation of cereals and root crops. It also characterises the basic hydraulic engineering works in the form of construction of embankments, adjustment of bed and construction of the barrage Włocławek as factors of deliberate human interference and their impact on changes channel. The article characterises morphological and morphodynamic conditions of the basic bed forms, i.e. sandy and gravel bars and pools determining the possibility of river transport, its development in time and space (depth of navigable route). Perspectives of multi-directional hydraulic development are presented, including the main cascade developments of the Lower Vistula (dolna Wisła). The article presents the opportunities for a comprehensive use of the waterway, which forms route E40 in the section of the Lower Vistula (dolna Wisła), taking into account sustainable development and compensation in the form of restoration of the valley bottom.
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